Multi-Tenant SaaS Architecture on AWS 

You will get overwhelmed by a study that says by 2025; the global cloud market will hit $171,926 million! Are you searching to find comprehensive and substantial details about SaaS architecture?

Take a relaxed breath because, fortunately, you have landed in the right place! Here, I am going to break down every term relating to SaaS architecture to help you fully understand the topic and its best practices.

Multi-Tenant SaaS Architecture

What is SaaS architecture?

SaaS, also known as Software-as-a-Service is a model designed for delivering and licensing software within a subscription basis payment and as a vendor, the SaaS provider hosts one or more applications and data centrally and makes them available for consumption for the user through the cloud(internet).

SaaS applications are a new phenomenon in the modern IT industry. Software companies are trying to turn their web application into SaaS applications due to their most comfortable management, reducing cost and time, avoiding complexity while upgrading, and getting more benefits that come along by getting architected within SaaS architecture. But the only way to do that is to build a multi-tenant architecture on SaaS applications.

How Multi-Tenant Architecture works?

A multi-tenant architecture is an architecture with a single instance (a database server) of an application you build to serve multiple tenants (customer or organization). In this environment, all tenants can use the same resources without interruption.

And the best part?

All tenants can share the same CPU, software, code, memory, and hardware resources being isolated logically, distributed dynamically, and freed up when needed.

After exploring the blog post, you will have a clear idea of multi-tenant SaaS architecture, its best practices, benefits and challenges, and some multi-tenant architecture variations.

Let’s get started!

What benefits does multi-tenant architecture have to offer?

You can have immense valuable benefits by adopting a multi-tenant structure for your SaaS application. Let’s have a look at some of these:

  • The only single trusted source: you may face extreme complication while deploying your code to the entire system as at least 3 to 4 branches of code repositories are needed per every tenant. With the help of multi-tenant architecture, you can bypass the confliction because it contains code repositories having a few branches and a source of trust (one database)
  • Minimizing server infrastructure costs: by architecting one application for all the tenants, you can dramatically reduce your AWS hosting costs
  • Get more time to marketing service and have a cost reduction of development: with a SaaS application environment, multi-tenant single codebase architecture, centralized storage and by implementing 12-factor methodology you can have the taste of reduction of cost in developing services, efficient operation and more time to market.

SaaS technology stack for architecture on AWS

To build a next-generation multi-tenant architecture, you need to adopt the correct AWS web stack covering library, language, OS, and other services to AWS technologies.

Explore some insights about the SaaS technology stack on AWS:

Programing language

You don’t have to worry about whatever language you selected. Just make sure that your application can scale and utilize multi-tenant architecture best practices.

Microservices

You must rest assured that your SaaS application lies under microservices to get multiple benefits like flexibility, standardization, probability, and problem isolation.

Cloud provider

AWS hosts almost 70 percent of all the SaaS applications according to the idea by multiple DevOps partners. So I highly recommend you implement your SaaS application on AWS to get continuous new services and features to facilitate your deployment and development.

Container orchestration

Amazon ECS, Amazon Farmgate, and amazon EKS are the Best three options to create, manage, and orchestrate a microservice cluster environment. Among these, Amazon ECS is the best option to choose.

Others technology 

I would suggest you architect your database with MongoDB if you target high traffic or a pro-development team for your SaaS environment. To add a new tenant, you need an automated process called Infrastructure as Code(IaC). Next, what matters most is MQS(message queue system), catching system, and cloud storage system.

Which multi-tenant SaaS architecture fits best to serve your application on AWS?

It would help if you had a clear idea about the application and database layer from where you’ll incorporate your saas application with a specific multi-tenant architecture. Let me break down this two-layer for your consideration:

Application layers

Monolithic architecture

Developers widely use monolithic architecture for its most effortless deployment and low complexity. It is not that bad, but the big drawback is that it wastes massive resources of AWS regarding usage of ram and CPU.

Microservices multi-tenant architecture for saas

Experts recommend microservices architecture as they provide an excellent balance between maximum usage of cloud resources and modernization. It comes with some notable advantages like:

  • Loosely coupled
  • Agile and flexible
  • Independent development and deployment
  • Granular scaling
  • Mixed technology stack

On the contrary disadvantages are:

  • High complexity
  • Debugging
  • consistency

The multi-tenant architecture with Kubernetes (Amazon EKS)

Amazon EKS is a managed service to run Kubernetes on AWS that doesn’t require you to operate, install, and maintain your own Kubernetes control plane. It isolates every tenant within a particular namespace and can limit the resource usage by implementing ResourceQuota.

Serverless multi-tenant saas architecture

It still has been a dream to create a serverless multi-tenant saas architecture. But anyhow, the dream will come true within a few years though it consumes a large amount of time and has enormous complexity.

Database layer

Let’s dig deep into the database layer. It is the easiest and cost-effective multi-tenant database architecture. You need to evaluate it with seriousness in the next step.

Single database- a table per tenant

This database architecture is famous among small startups for its outstanding cost-effectiveness. Its main flaws are performance degradation, lack of isolation, and noise among the tenants.

Single database: a schema per tenant

If data partitioning is your main concern, then you are good to go with this database structure as it is more secure and cost-effective than the previous one.

Instance per tenant

This process will cost you high but will give you the best performance, more security, and data isolation.

12-factor methodology

By following the 12-factor methodology, you can enable your application to be built with resilience and portability.

Multi-tenant saas architecture best practices

1.Scaling strategy: Application Load Balancer, Amazon S3 for static content, Amazon AutoScaling, caching system, etc.

2.Automation process for new tenants: you have to find out the process of creating new customers within your existing multi-tenant environment.

3.Code deployment: the other vital subject to consider is how you are going to deploy your code upon release across multiple environments and tenants.

4.Cleaning up inactive tenants: to identify an idle tenant and unused resources, you must develop an automated process.

Final thought

I hope this article has served your demand regarding multi-tenant saas architecture on AWS. I have tried to keep things simple for your better understanding. Now it is up to you whether you plan to build your application on multi-tenant architecture or not. But I highly recommend you integrate your application on Amazon ECS or EKS to get the best outcome!

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